On November 6, 2019, the bonds between the U.S. government and pharmaceutical companies were stretched when the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (“HHS”) filed a patent infringement lawsuit against Gilead Sciences in Delaware federal court regarding Gilead’s popular HIV drugs, Truvada® and Descovy®. HHS rarely sues for patent infringement. In fact, the U.S. government and pharmaceutical companies typically have collaborative relationships. For example, Gilead provided the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (“CDC”) with free drugs for government experiments to expand treatment for certain diseases. So, what happened?
In 2004, Gilead—after receiving patent protection—began selling Truvada® to treat people already infected with HIV. The CDC later investigated whether Truvada® could be used as a prophylactic to prevent HIV in monkeys and received patent protection for four key patents that “generally cover processes for protecting a primate or human host from a self-replicating infection by an immunodeficiency retrovirus, including HIV.” (Complaint, ¶ 196). Specifically, the claimed inventions provide protection “by a combination of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, such as FTC, and a nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor, such as tenofovir, or esters/prodrugs of tenofovir, such as TDF or TAF.” Id. Gilead donated the FTC, TDF, and tenofovir used in the CDC’s research, but its personnel do not appear to have otherwise assisted in the research.
The government alleges that first, it helped develop the drug with Gilead, and second, that Gilead “repeatedly refused to obtain a license from CDC to use the patented regimens” and “profited from research funded by hundreds of millions of taxpayer dollars[,]” without paying any royalties to the CDC. HHS seeks damages and royalties for Gilead’s alleged infringement. Many speculate that HHS’s motivation goes beyond royalties to something deeper: to increase access and decrease the price of Truvada® and Descovy® for pre-exposure prophylaxis (“PrEP”).
One goal identified by the Trump administration is to eradicate new cases of HIV and AIDS by 2030. In fact, the administration requested $291 million for this initiative in May 2019. Truvada® and Descovy® play a critical role in PrEP. PrEP is stated to be a highly-effective HIV prevention strategy that may play a vital role in ending the global HIV and AIDS epidemic. However, PrEP is not as widely used as it could be. Some allege that the limited use is related to limited access to the drugs—which in turn could be due in part to the high cost. In the United States, Truvada® costs roughly $1,782 a month. Some have speculated that this suit is part of the Trump administration’s initiative to lower PrEP prices and end the HIV epidemic in the United States. But is there more?
Political anger and public outcry over drug costs has increased over the years. Three years ago, a national controversy erupted over the price of EpiPen injectors manufactured by Mylan pharmaceuticals. In 2008, EpiPens cost about $100. In 2016, that price rose to $600. This price increase outraged customers and put the company at the forefront of the debate over drug costs. Public outrage, coupled with a whistleblower lawsuit, led Mylan to finalize a $465 million settlement with the U.S. Justice Department over claims that it overcharged the government for EpiPens.
The EpiPen controversy, coupled with the HHS lawsuit against Gilead, may signal to pharmaceutical companies across the country that the U.S. government is ready and willing to step in and demand lower drug prices. Accordingly, this case may be an important bellwether and should be followed by those with interests in these areas. Stay tuned to Intellectual Property Viewpoints for future developments.
 Descovy® is new to the market, so the average monthly cost is unknown.